CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Resources and Development

Here I am going to provide you CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development. You can also Download PDF of these notes. In this chapter you will learn the development of resources and resource planning in India. You will know about land resources and the classification of different types of soils found in India. In the end, the chapter discusses Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation. By going through Resources and Development Class 10 Notes you will acquire a better command on this chapter. So,use these notes and do your best!!

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CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development


    Everything in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs and is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable is termed as ‘Resource’. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in the environment into resources and use them.

    Classification of Resources

    Resources can be classified in the following ways:

    • On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
    • On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
    • On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international
    • On the basis of the status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves

    On the Basis of Origin

    Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
    Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.

    On the Basis of Exhaustibility

    Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.

    Non-Renewable Resources: The resources once consumed cannot be replaced are known as non-renewable resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation.For example: Oil, Coal etc.

    On the Basis of Ownership

    Individual Resources: The resources owned privately by individuals are called Individual resources. For example: Plot, houses etc. owned by a person.

    Community Owned Resources: The resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. For example: Public parks, picnic spots owned by a community.

    National Resources: The resources which come under nation are known as National Resources. Technically, all the resources belong to the nation.

    International Resources: The resources lying beyond 200 kms of Exclusive Economic Zone in the oceans are called International Resources. No one can use these resources without the permission of international institutions.

    On the Basis of the Status of Development

    Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example: the regions Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy.

    Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.

    Stock: The resources that have been surveyed, but cannot be used due a lack of technology. For example: water is a compound of two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy but we don't have technical know-how to use them.

    Reserves: The resources that have been surveyed and we can use them with present technology but their use has not been started are known as Reserves. For example: the water in the dams, forests etc.

    Development of Resources

    Resources have been used by human beings indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems.

    • Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of a few individuals.
    • Accumulation of resources in a few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e rich and poor.
    • It has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.

    Resource planning is essential for the sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable Economic Development means “development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.”

    Resource Planning

    In India, there are some regions which can be considered self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.

    Resource Planning in India

    Resource planning is a complex process which involves:

    1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
    2. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
    3. Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

    Resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes. India has made concerted efforts towards achieving the goals of resource planning, right from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.

    To overcome irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources, resource conservation at various levels is important.

    Land Resources

    Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems. India has land under a variety of relief features, namely; mountains, plateaus, plains and islands.

    Land Resources in India

    • About 43 percent of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. 
    • About 30 percent of the total surface area of the country are mountains which ensure perennial flow of some rivers and provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
    • About 27 per cent of the area of the country is the plateau region that possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.

    Land Utilisation

    Land resources are used for the following purposes:

    (i) Forests

    (ii) Land not available for cultivation

    a) Barren and wasteland

    b) Land put to non-agricultural uses

    (iii) Fallow lands

    (iv) Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land)

    (iv) Net sown area

    Land Use Pattern in India

    The use of land is determined

    Physical factors: such as topography, climate, soil types

    Human factors: such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.

    Land Degradation and Conservation Measures

    Human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly to land degradation. Mining sites leave deep scars and traces of over-burdening the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.

    Some of the ways through which we can solve the problems of land degradation are:

    • Afforestation and proper management of grazing.
    • Planting of shelter belts of plants.
    • Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
    • Proper management of waste lands.
    • Control of mining activities.
    • Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.

    Soil as a Resource

    Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

    • It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cms in depth. Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc contribute to the formation of soil.
    • Parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
    • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil play an important role.
    • Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.

    Classification of Soils

    On the basis of the factors responsible for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical properties, the soils of India are classified in different types as mentioned below.

    Alluvial Soils

    • The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil.
    • The Alluvial Soil is deposited by 3 important Himalayan river systems – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
    • It is also found in Rajasthan, Gujarat and eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
    • The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As we move inlands towards the river valleys, soil particles appear to be bigger in size whereas in the upper side of the river valley, the soils are coarse.
    • Alluvial soils are very fertile. These soils contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime, which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.

    Based on age, Alluvial soils can be classified as:

    1. Old Alluvial (Bangar): The Bangar soil has a higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
    2. New Alluvial (Khadar): It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the Bangar.

    Black Soil

    • This soil is black in colour and is also known as regur soil. Climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil.
    • The soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
    • This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows.
    • The soil covers the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extends in the south-east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
    • The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material and well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
    • Black soil is nutrients rich and contains calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
    • The soil is sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

    Red and Yellow Soils

    • This type of soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
    • These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
    • Found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.

    Laterite Soil

    • The laterite soil develops under tropical and subtropical climate with the alternate wet and dry season.
    • This soil is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
    • Lateritic soils are acidic (pH<6.0) in nature and generally deficient in plant nutrients. This type of soil is found mostly in Southern states, Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-east regions.
    • The soil supports deciduous and evergreen forests but humus poor.
    • This soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.

    Arid Soils

    • Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
    • This soil is generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas, the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.
    • Arid soil lacks humus and moisture.
    • The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water.

    Forest Soils

    • These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas.
    • The soil texture is loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
    • In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content. The soil is fertile on the river terraces and alluvial fans.

    Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

    • The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. 
    • The soil erosion is caused due to human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining etc. 
    • Also, there are some natural forces like wind, glacier and water which lead to soil erosion. Soil erosion is also caused due to defective methods of farming.

    Different Ways for Soil Conservation

    • Ploughing along the contour lines decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called Contour Ploughing.
    • Terrace cultivation restricts erosion. This type of agriculture practice is done in Western and Central Himalayas.
    • When a large field is divided into strips and strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. Then, this breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as Strip Cropping.
    • Planting lines of trees to create shelter helps in the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India. Rows of such trees are called Shelter Belts.
      CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development

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