CBSE Notes Class 10 Civics Popular Struggles and Movements

Here I am going to provide you CBSE Notes Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements. You can also Download PDF of these notes. In this chapter, you will learn how leaders in power, balance the conflicting demands and pressures that exist in Democracy. The chapter mainly deals with indirect ways of influencing politics, through pressure groups and movements. By going through Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes you will acquire a better command on this chapter. So,use these notes and do your best!!

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    Movement for Democracy in Nepal

    • Nepal won democracy in 1990.
    • King Birendra, who has accepted constitutional monarchy, was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001.
    • King Gyanendra, the new king of Nepal, was not prepared to accept democratic rule.
    • In February 2005, the king dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolved the elected Parliament.
    • The movement of 2006 started to regain democracy.
    • All major political parties formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for a ‘four day strike’ in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal.
    • The protest turned into indefinite strike joined by Maoist ad other organisations also.
    • They demanded restoration of parliament, power to an all-party government and a new constituent assembly.
    • On 24 April 2006, the last day of the ultimatum, the king was forced to accept all the three demands.
    • Girija Prasad Koirala became the new Prime Minister of the interim government as chosen by SPA. 
    • The Maoists and SPA agreed to have a new Constituent Assembly.
    • This struggle came to be known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy.

    Democratic Politics Bolivia’s Water War

    • Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America.
    • The World Bank forced the government to give up its control of municipal water supply and sold these rights for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company (MNC).
    • After controlling water supply, the company increased the price by four times.
    • This led to a spontaneous popular protest.
    • In January 2000, a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders called FEDECOR organised a successful four-day general strike in the city.
    • The government agreed to negotiate and the strike ended but nothing changed.
    • The protest started again in February and police used brutal methods to control it.
    • Another strike followed in April and the government imposed martial law. 
    • But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made government accept all their demands.
    • The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. 
    • This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war.

    Democracy and Popular Struggles

    • The stories of Nepal and Bolivia were different from each other. 
    • The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, democratic government. 
    • Both these struggles show their impact at different levels. 
    • Despite these differences, both instances involved critical role of political organisations.

    Here are some points which demonstrate how democracy has evolved all over the world:

    • Democracy evolves through popular struggles.
    • Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes, conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary.
    • The conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations, which include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups.

    Mobilisation and Organisations

    In a democracy, different kinds of organisations work behind any big struggle. These organisations play their role in two ways.

    1. Direct participation in competitive politics which is done by creating parties, contesting elections and forming governments. However, every citizen does not participate so directly, other than through voting.
    2. There are many indirect ways in which people can get governments to listen to their demands or their points of view. This is done by forming an organisation and undertaking activities to promote the interests or viewpoints of people. Such groups are known as “interest groups or pressure groups”.

    Pressure Groups and Movements

    • Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective.
    • A Movement attempts to influence politics rather than directly taking part in electoral competition. It’s a small organisation which depends on spontaneous mass participation of people than an interest group.
    • Eg: Narmada Bachao Andolan, Movement for Right to Information, Anti-liquor Movement, Women’s Movement, Environmental Movement.

    Sectional interest groups

    • They seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society such as workers, employees, business-persons, industrialists etc.
    • Examples are Trade unions, business associations.
    • Their main concern is the betterment and well-being of their members, not society in general.
    • However, sometimes they represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended.

    Public Interest Groups

    • Also called promotional groups as they promote collective rather than selective good.
    • They aim to help groups other than their own members.
    • Example: A group fighting bonded labour fights for everyone who is suffering under such bondage.
    • In some cases, the members of a public interest group may undertake activity that benefits them as well as others too.

    How do Pressure Group and Movements influence politics?

    They exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

    • They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions, etc.
    • They often organise protest activities like strikes or disrupting government programmes.
    • Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.

    The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms. Some direct and indirect ways are:

    • In some cases, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political parties.
    • Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
    • For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
    • In most cases, the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. 
    • In this case also, the dialogue and negotiation take place as most of the new leaders of political parties come from interest or movement groups.

    Is Pressure Group and Movements influence healthy?

    • Pressure groups and Movements have strengthened democracy. 
    • Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people. 
    • Public interest groups and Movements perform a useful role in countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens. 
    • Sectional interest groups also play a valuable role where different groups function actively, no one single group can achieve dominance over society. 
    • Thus, the government gets to hear about what different sections of the population want.
    CBSE Notes Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements

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