CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography ch-6 Manufacturing Industries

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Here I am going to provide you CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 : Manufacturing Industries. You can also Download PDF of these notes. In this chapter, you will learn about the manufacturing industries which fall in the secondary sector. Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials is called manufacturing. Workers employed in steel factories, car, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc. fall into secondary activities. I have tried to cover all important topics from this chapter in this notes. So, use these notes and do your best!!

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    Importance of manufacturing

    The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development due to the following reasons:

    1. Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture as it provides jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
    2. It helps in the eradication of unemployment and poverty.
    3. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
    4. It helps in prospering the country by giving a boost to the economy.

    Agriculture and industry in India are interdependent on each other :-

    1. Agro-industries in India have boosted agriculture by raising its productivity. Industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials, e.g. cotton textile industry. 
    2. Industries provide many agricultural inputs like irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers. 
    3. Development of different modes of transport by industrial sector has not only helped farmers to obtain agricultural inputs but has also helped them trade their products.

    Contribution of Industry to National Economy

    1. The industry accounts for 27% of the gross domestic product (GDP).  Of this, 10% comes from mining, electricity and gas, the remaining 17% comes from manufacturing.  But this share of manufacturing in GDP has been stable for the last two decades.
    2. The growth rate of manufacturing in the last decade has been 7%.  Since 2003, this growth rate has been 9 to 10%.  A growth rate of at least 12% is required for the next decade.
    3. The Government of India has set up the National Manufacturing Council (NMCC) to formulate the right policies and make the industry function properly.

    Industrial Location

    1. Industrial locations are influenced by the availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market.
    2. After an industrial activity starts, urbanisation follows.
    3. Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.
    4. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

    Classification of Industries

    On the basis of source of raw materials used:

    • Agro based
    • Mineral based

    According to their main role:

    • Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting.
    • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste.

    On the basis of capital investment:

    • Small scale industry: Such industry which requires the maximum investment up to rupees one crore. It employs a small number of labourers.
    • Large scale indutsry: If investment is more than one crore on any industry then it is known as a large scale industry.

    On the basis of ownership:

    • Public sector: Industries which are owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
    • Private sector: Industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
    • Joint sector: Industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
    • Cooperative sector: Industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.

    Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:

    • Heavy industries such as iron and steel
    • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

    Agro-based Industries

    Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials. Let’s know about each of them, one by one.

    Textile Industry

    1. It contributes 4 percent towards GDP.
    2. It is the only industry in India, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products. 
    3. It contributes to industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings.
    4. It is the second-largest employment generating sector in India after agriculture (directly employing 35 million persons).

    Cotton Textiles

    1. It is an agro-based and the oldest industry in India. 
    2. First cotton mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai. 
    3. At present, it the largest industry in our country. There are about 1600 cotton textile mills in our country. 
    4. Cotton textile mills are mainly concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat due to favourable conditions.
    5. Important centres are Mumbai, Pune,Ahmedabad, Surat, Rajkot etc. Other centres are Agra, Kanpur, Hugli, Chennai,Madurai etc. 
    6. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of fabric as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
    7. India exports yarn to Japan.
    8. The country also export cotton goods to U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.

    Problems that Cotton textiles industry facing nowadays:

    • Irregular supply of electricity
    • Old and outdated machinery
    • Low output of labour
    • Tough competition with the synthetic fibre industry

    Jute Textiles

    1. India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods.
    2. Most of the mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river.
    3. Factors responsible for the location of Jute industries in the Hugli basin are:
    • Presence of the jute producing areas
    • Inexpensive water transport
    • Supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills
    • Abundant water for processing raw jute
    • Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. 
    • Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

    Challenges faced by the jute industry:

    The stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.

    Sugar Industry

    1. India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of Gur and Khandsari. 
    2. This industry is seasonal in nature.
    3. In 2010-11 there were over 662 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
    4. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. 
    5. Sixty percent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

    In recent years, mills are shifting to the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra because:

    • The cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
    • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
    • The cooperatives are more successful in these states.

    Mineral-based Industries

    Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries. Let’s discuss some industries that fall under this category.

    Iron and Steel Industry

    1. Iron and steel is the basic industry as all the other industries – heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. 
    2. lt is considered as a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.
    3. Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.
    4. India ranked 4th among the world unrefined steel producers and largest producer of sponge iron.
    5. China is the largest producer of steel and also the world’s largest consumer of steel.
    6. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel.
    India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:

    • High costs and limited availability of coking coal
    • Lower productivity of labour
    • Irregular supply of energy
    • Poor infrastructure.

    Aluminium Smelting

    1. Aluminium Smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. 
    2. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. 
    3. Bauxite is the raw material used in the smelters.
    4. Aluminium Smelting has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.

    It exhibits the following properties:

    • Light in weight
    • Resistant to corrosion
    • A good conductor of heat
    • Malleable
    • Becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals

    Chemical Industries

    1. The Chemical industry comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. 
    2. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.
    3. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash and caustic soda.
    4. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

    Fertilizer Industry

    1. The fertilizer industries are centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). 
    2. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.
    3. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.
    4. Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

    Cement Industry

    1. Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. 
    2. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica and gypsum.
    3. The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
    4. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapidstrides in capacity, process, technology and production.
    5. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export.

    Automobile Industry

    1. This industry deals with the manufacturing of trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles. 
    2. These industries are located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
    3. The industry had experienced rapid growth in last 15 years.
    4. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

    Information Technology and Electronics Industry

    1. The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry. 
    2. Bangalore is considered as the electronic capital of India. 
    3. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
    4. The major IT industry concentration is at Bangalore, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune.
    5. The IT industry has employed a mass number of people.
    6. This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.

    Industrial pollution and environmental degradation

    Industries are responsible for 4 types of pollution:

    1. Air pollution is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels leads to air pollution. It adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
    2. Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers. The industries which are mainly responsible for water pollution are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries.
    3. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
    4. Noise pollution is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. It results in irritation, anger, cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure.

    Control of Environmental Degradation

    Here are some ways through which industrial pollution can be reduced:

    1. Minimising the use of water by reusing and recycling it.
    2. Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements.
    3. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
    4. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
    5. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
    6. Machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
    CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 : Manufacturing Industries
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